1. General Condition in Komodo National Park
Komodo national park was establish in March 06,1980 and designated a a man and biosphere reserve in 1986 and as a world heritage site in 1991 by UNESCO. Administratively the park is in Komodo sub-subdistrict west manggarai district in East Nusa Tenggara province Indonesia. Geographically it lay between Flores island and Sumbawa island.Komodo national park covers 173.300 hectares,consist of 40.728 hectares terrestrial part and 132.572 hectares of marine part.Three largest island are komodo island 33.937 hectares, rinca island 19.627 hectares and padar island 2.017 hectares.Most of its topography is mountainous with the highest peak are Ara 808 m asl and satalibo 726 m asl.The weather is dry with average annually rainfall about 500-1000 mm. Rainy season occurs during january to april with storm wave strong enough that could be make boat travel danger. Compare to the other region in Indonesia, komodo national park supports limited numbers of wild plant and animal species. Only the species which could be do adaptation to dry environment that will survive. In this park has about 244 species of terrestrial plants,16 species of mammals,111 species of birds,34 species of reptiles and 3 species of amphibians. There are three village in the park namely Komodo village in Komodo island, Pasir Panjang village and Kerora village in Rinca island and Papagarang vilage in Papagarang island.
2. Natural Resources
Komodo dragons is the largest lizard in the world, which called Ora in local language. These Ora can only found in their natural habitat in komodo national park. According to the komodo national park survey in 2003 the population of komodo dragons on komodo and rinca island is 297 dragons by direct meeting. Komodo national park with zoological society of San Diego have marked about 700 dragons. Beside on komodo island the dragons also could be found in Rinca island, Gili Motang and Nusa Kode island. The dragons prefer inhabit at low land forest but sometimes it also could be found at savanna and at higher forest.Adult ora prey on deer,wild pig,wild buffalo,wild horse nd dead body of that prey.On big prey the dragons just bite it taht will die caused by infected of many deadly bacteria in their saliva. Breeding season of the dragon occurs during july to august. Female dragons can lays up to 30 eggs,which will hatch about 5 to 6 months later. The juvenile dragons mostly stay on tree and feed on small animals such as birds,geckos,lizardd and insect.
About 70% of terrestrial part of the park covers by savanna.Dominant plant species at savanna is grasses such as Setaria adhaerens,chloris barbata and heteropogon contortus. Lontar and bidara are three species that commonly found at savanna. This park also covers by monsoon forest, mountain forest and mangrove forest.
4. Coral Reefs
Coral reef on the park is one of the most beautiful coral reef of the world. A great number and variety of fishes more 1000 species,hard coral 260 species,sponges 70 species and other invertebrates could be found in many site of this park. Species of coral in the park such as acropora spp,favites sp, leptoria sp,fungia sp,sarcophyton sp. Beside the corals you can also look for many species of gorgonians,sea fans,sea pens,anemones with clown fish,star fishes,christmas tree worms,clams,crab,etc. The examples of coral reef fishes are butterfly-fishes,angel-fishes,lion-fishes,scorpion-fishes,damsel-fishes,groupers,moray,napoleon wrasse etc. Komodo national park become migration path of 5 species of whales, 10 species of dolphins and dugong also inhabit in marine part of the park.
Mangrove forest covers only 5% throughout of the park. But mangrove extremly important to hold out sea abration and sendiment from land. They also provide shelter,feeding ground for long tailed macaque, bats, birdds and crabs.It also become feeding ground, spawing nursery ground for many kinds of fishes and other marinelife. This greenbelt bouding land with sea water could be found at loh sebita,gili lawa, loh lawi in komodo island and loh kima and loh buaya at rinca island. Two dominant species of mangrove in the park are rhizophora mucronata that usually grows within the inter tidal zone and lumnitzera racemoza on the outside of inter tidal zone.
6. Other Animals
Komodo national park is also inhabitant of timor deer, wild buffalo, wild horse, and long tailed macaque. Numerous kind of birds such as lesser shulpur crestedcockatoo,king fisher,friar bird,orange footed scrub fowl.On the coastal zone and marine area you could see many species of sea birds such as giant heron, reef heron, bridled tern and black napped tern. You can also found raptors such as brahmine kite,fish hawk,white bllied sea eagle. On the offshore you could also found blue whale , balaenoptera, mink whale, dolphins and manta rays also lived in the park.
7.Poin of Interest
loh liang that located on komodo island is main visitor gateway to komodo national park . It provides opportunity to various activities for visitor such as :
- komodo dragons and other wild life watching such as timor deer, wild buffalo, and wild pig
- bird watching such as megapodes birds, lesser shulpur crestedcocktoo
- hiking loh liang to mount ara and mount satalibo
- adventure loh liang to sabita
- photo hunting and video shooting
- diving and snorkeling
loh buaya is the second visitor gateway to komodo national park that located on rinca island.Loh buaya is one of the best site to see panorama that dominated by savanna and lontar palm also for mangroves ecosystem. Many wild animals could be seen here such as komodo dragons, timor deer, water buffalo, wild horse, long tailed macaque and many kind of birds. Loh Buaya provides opportunity to various activities for visitors such as :
- Komodo dragons and other wild life watching such as timor deer wild buffalo, wild horse and wild pig.
- Bird watching
- photo hunting and video shooting
- fruit bats watching in kalong island
- batu balok watching in near rinca village
3. Diving and snorkeling sites
Komodo national park also offers tremendous sites diving and snorkeling opportunities . Some sites identified suitable for that purposes are pengah island, siaba island, small tatawa island, northern padar island, mauan island, indihiang island pink beach, batu bolong island, gililawa darat. However, current in this water are notoriously strong every swimmers need to be cautions in their exploration. Thank you for visit our site
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